Important Terms Used in Masonry Construction
Masonry is a widely used term in the field of construction. Some of the important terms related to masonry works that must be known by the construction professionals are discussed below.
1. Course in Masonry
A course in a masonry structure is the horizontal layer of bricks or stones.
2. Bed in Masonry
A bed is a surface of brick or stone that is perpendicular to the line of action of pressure. In each course of stone or brick, it represents the bottom surface.
3. Back and Backing in Masonry
The inner surface of the masonry structure like a wall, that is not exposed is called back. The material that is constructed in the back is called as backing.
4. Face and Facing in Masonry
The exterior surface of the masonry structure like a wall that is exposed outside is called a face. The material that is forming the face is defined as facing.
5. Hearting of Masonry Structure
The interior portion between the backing and facing of the masonry structure forms the hearting.
6. Stretcher in Masonry
The stretcher is the arrangement of brick laid with its length parallel to the face of the wall. A course that contains a stretcher is called a stretcher bond.
7. Header in Masonry
The header is the arrangement of brick laid with its breadth or the width parallel to the face of the front direction of the brick or stone masonry wall.
8. Soldiers in Masonry
Bricks laid with its longer sides vertical are called soldiers. A course with soldiers is called a soldier course. This provides visual interest to the masonry structure. It is a type followed in brick masonry.
9. Arrises in Brick Masonry
The edges formed by the intersection of the faces of the bricks are called the arises. The arises formed must be sharp, clean and free from damage.
10. Perpends in Brick Masonry
The perpends are vertical joints that separate the brick unit either lengthwise or cross-direction wise. In order to achieve good perpends, the vertical joints in alternative courses must be one above the other.
11. Lap in Brick Masonry
Lap is defined as the horizontal distance between the vertical joints in successive courses. A lap length of one-fourth brick length is said to be a good lap in brick masonry.
12. Closer in Brick Masonry
A closer is defined as a piece of brick that is used to close up the bond at the end of the brick masonry course. This helps to prevent the formation of vertical joints of successive courses in a single line. Closer need not be specially molded.
13. Queen Closer and King Closer in Masonry
A queen closer is obtained by cutting the brick longitudinally in equal parts. This can also be made from two-quarter bricks which are designated as quarter closers. This helps to minimize wastages in masonry construction.
King closer is obtained by cutting a triangular portion of the brick. This on laying provides half header and half stretcher on the adjoining cut faces. Near the door and window openings a king closer is used, so that mortar joints can be provided with proper arrangement.
14. Bat in Brick Masonry
A bat is a piece of brick made and defined with respect to the length of the brick. A bat used can be either half-bat or three-quarter bat.
Also Read: Important Terms in Brick Masonry
15. Plinth in Masonry
A horizontal projection provided at the base of the wall of the building is called a plinth. It can be made either of stone or brick.
The bond is an overlapping of bricks or stones in the alternative courses of the masonry structure in order to avoid the continuous vertical joint formation. This hence helps to bind the individual units together.
17. Quoin in Masonry
Quoin is the corner or exterior angle of the stone or masonry wall.
18. Cornice in Masonry
A cornice is a horizontal decorative molding provided over a door or a window whose function is to throw the rainwater away from the building walls. It is provided around the top edge of an interior wall or pedestal.
19. Sill in Masonry Construction
Sill is a horizontal member of brick, wood, stone or concrete that is provided to give support for the vertical members of the window.
Corbel is the extension of one or more courses of stone or brick from the face of the wall. It is a structural detailing to take up an extra load coming over it.